If you enter a public place e.g. a supermarket, pub, nightclub etc, the occupiers of that building have a duty of care to ensure that the public are safe whilst on their property. This includes ensuring that the building and its fixtures and fittings are in a good state of repair; a good housekeeping regime; mopping up spoils; providing clear walkways etc. There are a number of factors which are taken into account to establish 'what is reasonable'.
Your local council is responsible for keeping roads and pavements maintained and in a reasonable condition. The important question is 'what is a reasonable condition'
Various factors are taken into account to answer this question and so tripping or slipping in the street doesn't necessarily mean you will be able to claim for compensation.
If the accident was caused by work in progress then the organisation or the people carrying out the work may be liable for the accident and any injury that resulted from it, therefore compensation would be claimed from them.